‘झुट र चिटिङ’ मधेसीहरूको पहिचान

Mahesh Chaudharyमहेस चौधरी– झुट बोल्ने, चिटिङ गर्ने मधेसीहरूको पहिचान हो। एकदिन डाक्टर उपाधि धारण गरेका ‘मधेस का इतिहास’ लेखकलाई सोधे, ‘तपाईँहरूको ‘मधेस’ कहाँ छ भन्दा उनले सहज जवाफ दिए ‘अवध, मगध, विदेह, मिथिला, जनकपुर र सम्पूर्ण भारत वर्ष त हो। बुद्ध पनि त मधेसी थिए। उनका पुर्खा बनारसका ओक्काका हुन्। बनारस मधेसमा पर्छ। भगवान बुद्धले मधेसमा जन्म लिने इच्छा जाहेर गरेका थिए।’ त्यसपछि मैले पुनः प्रसन गरे– ‘भगवान बुद्धलाई ‘मधेस’ अचाक्ली मन पर्थ्यो हगी?’ उनले उत्तरस्वरूप जवाफ दिए, ‘पर्ने नै भयो हाम्रो मधेस त स्वर्ग हो स्वर्ग।’ अन्तमा उनले मुस्कुराउँदै भने, ‘सन् १८६१ मा मात्रै अवधबाट नेपालको नयाँ मुलुक नेपालमा गाभिएको हुनाले थारूहरू नेपाली नागरिक भएको जम्मा ४५ वर्ष मात्र भएको छ।’

जुगल किसोर बौद्धले आफ्नो पुस्तक ‘राजगृह’मा उल्लेख गरेका छन् कि विम्बिसारको प्रथम भेटमा आफ्नो परिचय दिँदै सिद्धार्थले भनेका थिए– ‘मेरो नाम सिद्धार्थ हो। हिमालय (हिमवन्त) को तराईमा एउटा जनपद छ। त्यहाँ कोसल देसवासी ऋजुस्वभावका राजा छन्, जो धन र पराक्रमले युक्त छन्। उनी सूर्यवंशी र शाक्य जातिका हुन्।’ पालीमा लिखित ‘महावंश’ मा उल्लेख गरिएको छ– ‘महामुनि (बुद्ध) महासम्मत राज वंशका थिए। यस महासम्मत वंशले कसया (कुसीनगर उ.प्र.), अयोध्याय, बाराणसी, कपिलवस्तु, हस्तिनापुर, विदेह, मिथिला, राजगृह (पटना), एकचक्खु, वजिरा, मथुरा, अरिठ्ठपुर, इन्द्रप्रस्थ, कौसम्बी, कर्ण गोच्छ, रोजनगर र चम्पामा राज्य गरेका थिए।

मखादेवका वंशमा ८४ हजार राजाहरूले मिथिलामा राज्य गरेका थिए। यस्तै कपिलवस्तुको शाक्य राज्यमा राजा ओक्काकाका जेठ पुत्र ओक्कामुख (उल्कामुख) राजा बने। त्यसपछि उनका ८२ हजार सन्तानहरूले कपिलवस्तु राज्य गरे, अन्तिम राजा जय सेन थिए।’ कपिलवस्तुमा गौतम् बुद्धभन्दा पहिले २७ वटा बुद्ध जन्मिसकेका छन्। तर भर्खर ५–६ हजार वर्षअघि मात्र सिन्धुघाटी छिरेका मधेसीहरूले अवध, मगध, विदेह, मिथिला, कपिलवस्तु हाम्रो हो भन्न कसरी सकिरहेका होलान्?

ब्रायन हडसनले कुनै पनि जातिमा औंलो अवरोधी क्षमता विकास गर्नका लागि त्यो जाति निरन्तररूपमा कम्तिमा ३ हजार वर्षसम्म औंलोग्रस्त क्षेत्रमा बसोबास गरेकै हुनुपर्छ भनेका छन्। औंलो अवरोधी क्षमता थारूमा छ। इतिहास सिरोमणी बाबुराम आचार्यले ‘थारू’ स्थान बोधक सब्द हो। ‘थर’ र ‘तर’ समानार्थी सब्द हुन्। ‘तर’, ‘तराई’, तलहटी एकै अर्थ दिने विभिन्न प्रत्ययबाट बनेका सब्द हुन्। ‘तर’ सब्द संस्कृत र फारसी दुवै भाषामा प्रयोगमा आएका छन्। दुवै भाषामा यो सब्दले पानी–पानीले भिज्ने अर्थ दिन्छ। सबै किसिमले हर्दा थारू यस्तो प्रजाति हो, जो पानीले भिजिरहने ‘तर’ तराई वा धापिलो भूमिमा बस्ने गर्छ भनेर उल्लेख गरेका छन्।

भारतीय इतिहासकारहरूले आदिम प्रारम्भिक युगदेखि अन्तिम हिमयुग वुर्म अर्थात् आजभन्दा ई.पू. १०,००० काललाई प्राग ऐतिहासिक काल मानेका छन्। ई.पू. १०,००० देखि मौर्य कालसम्मलाई आद्य ऐतिहासिक काल र चन्द्र गुप्त मौर्य कालदेखि आजसम्मको युगलाई ऐतिहासिक काल मानेका छन्। ऐतिहासिक काल निर्माणका लागि भाषा विकास र लिपि हुन नितान्त आवश्यक हुन्छ। मौर्य कालसम्म पाली भाषा र ब्राह्मी लिपिको विकास भइसकेको पाइन्छ। चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्यका पुर्खा कपिलवस्तु क्षेत्रबाट मगधको पिप्लीवनमा बसाई सरी गएका थिए। चन्द्र गुप्त मौर्य शाक्य थारू भएको हुनाले उनलाई ‘सकला’ भनिन्थ्यो। पाली भाषा र ब्राह्मी लिपि थारूहरूकै लिपि हो, पाली मगधको राज भाषा हो।

भारतीय इतिहासकारहरूले वैदिक काललाई ऋग्वैदिक काल, उत्तर वैदिक काल, सुत्रहरूको युग, महाकाव्यहरूको युग, धर्मसास्त्रहरूको युग भनेर विभाजन गरेका छन्। धर्मशास्त्रहरूको युगमा ‘मनुस्मृति’ अथवा मानव धर्मशास्त्रलाई हिन्दू विधि अथवा कानुनको रूपमा मान्यता प्रदान गरियो। वि्रटिस राज्यको समयमा पनि अंग्रेजहरूले ‘मनुस्मृति’ लाई कानुनी मान्यता प्रदान गरेका थिए। मध्य देश, मधेस र मधेसी भन्ने सब्द धर्मसास्त्रहरूको युगका कुरा हुन्। तर अलिहे हामी एक्काइसौं सताब्दीमा संविधान सभामार्फत् लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र र धर्म निरपेक्ष राज्यलाई संस्थागत गर्न गइरहेका छौं। भारतमा अहिले मध्य प्रदेश त छ तर त्यो हिन्दू धर्मावलम्बी मात्र रहेको ‘मनुस्मृति’ ले निर्धारण गरेको ‘मधेस’ होइन।

अहिले भारतमा मधेस कहीँ छैन किनभने भारतमा धर्म निरपेक्ष राज्य स्थापना भइसकेको छ। अहिले नेपालका मधेसीहरूले नेपालको मध्य भागलाई होइन नेपालको दक्षिणी भागमा पर्ने तराईलाई चिटिङ गरेर मधेस हो भनिरहेका छन्। केही लाल बुझक्कड मधेसीहरूले बुद्धिष्ठहरूको चारिकाका लागि स्थापना गरिएको ‘मज्झीम निकाय’लाई समेत हिन्दू धर्मावलम्बीहरूको मधेस हो भन्न पछि परेका छैनन्। यसर्थ ‘मनुस्मृति’ का आधारमा हिन्दूवादी मधेसीहरूको ‘मधेस’ कहा“ हो भनेर बुझ्न जरुरी छ।
 ‘मनुस्मृति’ द्वितीय अध्यायमा उल्लेख गरिएको छ :  
हिमवद्विन्ध्ययो मध्ये यत्प्राग्विनसनादपि।
प्रत्यगेव प्रयागाच्च मध्यदेसः प्रकीर्तितः।।२३।।
अर्थात् हिमालय र विन्ध्याचल पवर्तहरूका बीच, सरस्वती नदीभन्दा पूर्व र प्रयाग (इलाहावाद) भन्दा पसिचम जुन देस स्थित छ त्यसलार्ई मध्यदेस (मधेस) भनिन्छ।
आसमुद्रातु र्वे पूर्वादासमुद्राच्च पसिचमात्।
तयोरेवान्तरं गिर्योरार्यावतँ विदुर्बुधाः।।२४।।
अर्थात् पूर्वी समुद्र (बंगाल खाडी) एवं पसिचमी समुद्र (फारस खाँडी) सम्म र दुवै पर्वतहरू हिमालय तथा विन्ध्याचलको मध्यस्थित प्रदेश छ जहाँ विद्वज्जनहरू निवास गर्छन् त्यो स्थानलाई आर्यावर्त भन्छन्।

उपरोक्त मनुस्मृतिको सलोकबाट के बुझिन्छ भने इलाहावादभन्दा पसिचम अर्थात् दिल्ली वरपर स्थित जुन देस छ त्यसलाई मध्य देश/मधेस भनिन्छ र त्यहाँका बासिन्दालाई ‘मधेसी’ भनिन्छ। त्यहाँ विद्वजनहरू निवास गर्दैनन्, अनार्थहरूले मात्र निवास गर्छन्। मध्य देशभन्दा बाहिरको भागलाई ‘आर्यावर्त’ भनिन्छ र त्यहाँका बासिन्दालाई ‘आर्य’ भनिन्छ, मधेसी भनिँदैन। त्यहाँ विद्वजनहरू मात्र निवास गर्छन्।

यसबाट के निष्कर्ष निस्कन्छ कि ‘मनुस्मृति’ कालमा भारतको दिल्ली वरपरको क्षेत्रबाहेक अन्य भाग अवध, मगध, विदेह, मिथिला, दक्षिण भारत मधेसअन्तर्गत पर्दैन्थ्यो र त्यहाँका बासिन्दाहरू मधेसी होइनन् ‘आर्य’ हुन् अर्थात् मधेस भूभागभन्दा बाहिर बसोबास गर्ने भारतीयहरू पनि मधेसी होइनन् आर्य हुन्। मध्यदेसीहरू मात्र मधेसी हुन् जो विद्वजन होइनन्। मध्य देसका बासिन्दाहरू इसवरवादी हिन्दुयानी हुन् र अवध, मगध बज्जी, विदेह, मिथिलाका बासिन्दा अनिसवरवादी हिनयानी थेरवादी (स्थवीर) हुन्।

मनुस्मृतिको दसम अध्यायमा उद्धृत गरिएको छ :
झल्लोमल्लसच राजन्याद् व्रात्यान्निच्छिविखे च।
नटसच कारणसचैव खसो द्रविड एव च।।२१।।
अर्थात् जो पुत्र ब्रात्य वैसयबाट उत्पन्न हुन्छ त्यसलाई ‘झल्ल’, ‘मल्ल’, ‘निच्छिवि’, ‘नट’, ‘करण’, ‘खस’ र ‘द्रविड’ भनिन्छ। व्रात्य क्षेत्री भनेको व्रत उपासना गर्ने, जातपात, छुवाछुत नमान्ने यज्ञ र कर्मकाण्ड नगर्ने, मधेसभन्दा बाहिरी क्षेत्रको मानिस भन्ने बुझाउँछ। मधेसका बासिन्दा मधेसी भनेझैँ व्रात्य क्षेत्रको बासिन्दालाई व्रात्य क्षेत्री भन्छन्। क्षेत्री भनेको राजपुत होइन। थारूहरू, बुद्धिष्ठहरू मधेसी होइनन् भनेर यही मनुस्मृति सलोकले प्रष्ट पारिसके पछि थारूहरू मधेसी होइनन् भनेर अरू उदाहरण दिनु पर्दैन।

बुद्धले हिन्दूहरूको प्रचलित मान्यताहरूको त्याग गरेका थिए। बुद्धले सदैव अमर आत्मा, परमात्मा, स्वर्ग, नरक, आवागमन, कर्मफल, यज्ञवाद तथा ब्राह्मण वादमा विसवास गरेनन् तथा यिनीहरूलाई झुट र असत्य भने। बुद्धले वेद, उपनिषद र ब्राह्मण ग्रन्थहरूको मान्यतालाई समेत मानेनन्। उनले म ईश्वरको अवतार होइन समेत भनेका छन् भने उनका सन्तान र धर्मावलम्बी हिन यानी थेरवादी (स्थविर) जनजाति थारूहरू कसरी कट्टरपन्थी, वर्णवादी, जातिवादी, इसवरवादी, मधेसी हुन सक्तछन्?
बौद्ध वांगमयमा ल्केसहरूबाट सर्वथा टाढा रहनेहरूलाई ‘आर्य’ भन्छन् र सबै प्राणीहरूको लागि परम् हितकारी एवं कल्याणकारी वचनलाई सत्य भन्छन्।

गौतम बुद्धको उपदेसअनुसार आर्य भनेको उत्तम, पवित्र र सत्य अर्थात् जहिले पनि सत्य अथवा सही सावित भइरहने, निर्मल चित्त भएको व्यक्तिलाई ‘आर्य’ बुझाउँछ। बहुजन हिताय र बहुजन सुखायको भावना भएको व्यक्तिलाई आर्य भनिन्छ। ज्ञानवान, प्रज्ञावान, सीलवान व्यक्तिलाई ‘आर्य’ भनिन्छ। अंग्रेजीमा आर्यलाई ‘नोबल्’ भन्छन्। जुन व्यक्ति अति चरम सीमाहरू कामसुख र सरीरलाई अतिकस्ट दिएर तपस्या गर्ने कार्यलाई त्यागेको हुन्छ त्यसलाई आर्य भन्छन्।

जुन व्यक्ति ठीक धारणा, ठीक विचार, ठीक बोली, ठीक कर्म, ठीक आजीविका, ठीक प्रयत्न, ठीक स्मृति, ठीक एकाग्रता अर्थात् आर्य अस्टाङ्गिक मार्ग अपनाएको छ त्यसलाई आर्य भनिन्छ। जुन व्यक्तिले संसारमा दुःख छ भन्ने कुरा बुझेको छ, दुःखको कारण, त्यसबाट छुटकारा पाउने उपाय र मार्ग अर्थात् चार आर्य सत्य बुझेको छ त्यसलाई ‘आर्य’ भन्छन्। चार आर्य सत्यलाई जान्नेलाई ‘बुद्ध’ भनिन्छ भने त्यसको विपरीत चार आर्य सत्यलाई नजान्नेलाई ‘बुद्धु’ भनिन्छ। चार आर्य सत्य प्राप्त गर्ने अथवा मुक्त हुनेलाई ‘आचार्य’ भनिन्छ। थारूहरू ‘आर्य’ हुन् र साथै ‘आचार्य’ हुन्।

कौटिल्य (चाणक्य)ले आफ्नो अर्थशास्त्रको पुस्तकमा ‘आर्य’ शब्दको राजनीतिक शब्दावलीमा ‘नागरिक’को अर्थमा प्रयोग गरेका थिए। यसबाट के बुझिन्छ भने आर्यावर्तमा आदिवासी नागरिकहरूको बसोबास गरहेको छ भने मध्य देशमा अनार्य अर्थात् बाहिरबाट बसाई सरी आएका अनागरिक/आप्रवासी मधेसीहरूको बसोबास रहेको बुझिन्छ। स्मरण रहोस् सन् १९४७ सम्म मधेसीहरू अंगेजी नागरिक थिए। १९४७ अर्थात् ६७ वर्ष पहिले भारत स्वतन्त्र भएपछि मात्र मधेसीहरू भारतीय नागरिक बन्न पुगेका हुन्।
आर्यावर्तका बासिन्दा विपरित मध्य देसका बासिन्दाहरू चाँर आर्य सत्ता बुझेकै छैनन्, आर्य अष्टाङ्गी मार्ग अपनाउँदैनन्, बुद्धका उपदेश बुझेकै छैन त्यसैले उनीहरू बुद्ध धर्मको विरोध गर्छन्। बुद्ध ग्रन्थलाई जलाउँछन्, वर्ण व्यवस्था जातपात, छुवाछुत, उचनीचको भावना राख्छन्। दुष्ट चित्त भएका छन्, बहुजन हिताय र बहुजन सुखायको भावना राख्दैनन्।

यज्ञमा मानव बलि दिन्छन्, सुरा–सुन्दरीमा लिप्त हुन्छन्। ज्ञानवान, प्रज्ञावान, सीलवान छैनन् यस्ता व्यक्तिहरू मध्य देशमा बसोबास गर्छन् भन्ने मनुस्मृतिकारहरूको धारणा रहेको छ। उदाहरणका लागि हेरौं काठमाडौंको फुटपाठमा माग्ने लुला, लङ्गडा, लफङ्गा, अन्धा, नङ्गा, माग्नेहरू, चोर चण्डाल, बगलीमारा, अपराधीहरू सबै मध्यदेशका प्रोडक्ट हुन्। थरुहटको यस्तो प्रोडक्ट एक जना पनि फेला पार्न सकिँदैन अनि थारू र मधेसी कसरी एउटै हुन सक्तछ?

लेखक ‘नेपालको तराई तथा यसका भूमिपुत्रहरू’, ‘स्थविरहरूको प्राचीन इतिहास र संस्कृति’ र’Hidden Treasures of the Low Land Nepal’ का लेखक हुन्।

20 thoughts on “‘झुट र चिटिङ’ मधेसीहरूको पहिचान

  1. बहुत दमदार लेख महेश दाजु । खुशी लागल ईटके जवाफ पत्थरसे देले बाटी । अपनेहे बहुत बहुत धन्यवाद ।

  2. महेशजी, उपरोक्त लेखमा उल्लिखित ‘मधेश का इतिहास’का लेखक का नाताले म जान्न चाहन्छु तपाईं र हाम्रो भेंट वा कुराकानी कहिले भयो? यो जूनीमा हामी भेटेको, कुरा गरेको वा इमेल पठाएको त पक्कै छैन, भन्ने उपरोक्त वार्तालाप कसरी सत्य होला? त्यो नभए शेष पढनु कसरी उपयुक्त होला।

  3. लेखकलाई धेरै धेरै धन्यवाद ! यसबाट थारु सभासद् लगायतले थारु र मधेशीको बिचको भिन्नता बुझ्न सक्छ । धेरैजनाले यसलाई अझ पनि आत्मसात गर्न सकेको छैन । मैले १२ बर्ष अगाडी यहि कुरा गर्दा अहिले रानजितीक र प्रशासनिक क्षेत्रमा सकृय रहेका धेरै थारुले यसलाई राम्ररी बुझ्न सकेका थिएन ।

  4. धन्यबाद दाजु
    अप्नेह दिलसे सलाम बा जेहोस हमार थारु समुदायम फे अप्नेहस बिद्वानबाट सत्य तथ्य दमदार लेख लिख्के पूरा थारु समुदायके छाती चाकिल कैदेली सि के रावतके मुटु हिलादेली हो यथार्त त कहक परल जे दाजु । जे मधेश नेपाल म देखत उ बुझकते कुछ इ लेख पहरके knowledge लिह सेकि ।

  5. थारूलाई तराईबाट लखेट्ने अनेक षडयन्त्र भैरहेका छन्. यो षडयन्त्र मधेशबादीले गर्दै छन् भन्ने कुरा प्रष्ट हुन्छ. उता कनकमणि दिक्षितले बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मेको होइन, नेपाल जन्मिनु भन्दा पहिला नै बुद्ध जन्मेको तर्क उसको रहेको छ अर्थात् बुद्ध कपिलबस्तुमा जन्मेका हुन्. उहिल्यैको कपिलबस्तु अहिलेको नेपालमा पर्न गएछ होला भनेर उसको टिप्पणी रहेको छ.

  6. mahesh jee, tapaile dherai ramro lekhnu bhayo. C.K. Raut jee le shayad basobas garne thaulai matra aadhar banaer tharu pani madheshi nai hun bhannu bhaeko chha.tar tharuharrusanga kunai pani mamilama mel nakhane kathit bajjiya arthat badhi bolirahaneharu nai tharu ko najar ma madheshi hun bhanne wahale birsanu bhaeko chha.

  7. We really appreciate the effort to highlight the reality. All Tharus need to keep it repeating loudly so that whole world can know our such a great history.

  8. New course has been prescribed in M.A 2nd year i.e Nepal studies n here in this book inclusion of Tharu -State relation in Nepal and India written by Arjun Guneratne is included. Struggle of Indigenous Tharu people along with various misfortunes are given. Tharu who have the oldest registered ethnic association in Nepal and the recent attempt (in 2009)by the late moist government of Nepal to classify the Tharu as Madhesi was really frustrating .From this we can conclude how the so called politician has been able to successfully exploit in its quest for power. So each and every Tharu people should have the knowledge of politics n should be conscious about their rights.Bearing in mind this very article provides sufficient logical evidence based on truths which i enjoyed a lot while reading.n fruitful for me. Thanks for Tharuwan.com for posting such a beautiful information.

  9. New course has been prescribed in M.A 2nd year i.e Nepal studies n here in this book inclusion of Tharu -State relation in Nepal and India written by Arjun Guneratne is included. Struggle of Indigenous Tharu people along with various misfortunes are given. Tharu who have the oldest registered ethnic association in Nepal is a very good example of Tharu being the oldest ethnic group of Nepal . The recent attempt (in 2009)by the late moist government of Nepal to classify the Tharu as Madhesi was really frustrating and a move that led to the mobilization of Tharu throughout the Terai in protest and the loss of several lives. Tharu people heat the road against this acts n somehow became successful where several Tharu youths loss their lifes for the sake of thier own identity..From this we can conclude how the so called politician has been able to successfully exploit in its quest for power. So each and every Tharu people should have the knowledge of politics n should be conscious about their rights.Bearing in mind this very article provides sufficient logical evidence based on truths which i enjoyed a lot while reading.n fruitful for me. Thanks for Tharuwan.com for posting such a beautiful information.

  10. IN response to article written by Mahesh Chaudary:

    1. There is no Janapad called tarai and the word itself derived from “persian” word and used extensively during ENGLISH period.THE thar and tar had no defined word in NEPALI dictionary nad hence TERAI word doesn’t derived from any LANGUAGE prevailing in indian subcontinent … And kindly there is no THARU language as it is not even the dialects, as we can see the variation of languague through Terai.. And About Madhes or MADHYADESH had been written by different writers showing different regions and had been very critcise and critical.. Though BAsis of saying that Madhes was very perfeably used by Hills people for this basis King Prithvi Narayan Shah’s letter to Bhagavanta Nath (published in Purushartha, December 1949) writing “The boundaries have been extended to the Kankai river in the Madhesh and the Hasabharyakhola and the Tamor river in the hills. ” or it is administrative establishment like “Madhesh Bandobast Adda” or “Madhesh Report Niksari” or “Kumarichok Madhesh Pahila Phant“, “पालि त्रिपिटक का कुछ भाग अवश्य ही अशोक के काल में साहित्यिक रूप धारण कर चुका था क्योंकि उसके लाहुलोवाद, मोनेय्यसुत्त आदि सात प्रकरणों का उल्लेख उनकी भाब्रू की प्रशस्ति में हुआ है। किंतु उपलब्ध साहित्य की भाषा में अशोक के पूर्वी शिलालेख की भाषा संबंधी विशेषताओं का प्राय: सर्वथा अभाव है। व्यापक रूप से पालि भाषा का स्वरूप गिरनार प्रशस्ति की भाषा से सर्वाधिक मेल खाता है, और इसी कारण पालि मूलत: पूर्वदेशीय नहीं, किंतु मध्यदेशीय है। जिस विशेषता के कारण पालि मध्ययुगीन भारतीय आर्यभाषा के प्रथम स्तर की गिनी जाती है, द्वितीय की नहीं, वह है उसमें मध्यवर्ती अघोष व्यंजनों के लोप तथा महाप्राण वर्णों के स्थान पर ह् के आदेश का अभाव। ये प्रवृत्तियाँ द्वितीय स्तर की भाषाओं के सामान्य लक्षण हैं। हाँ, कहीं कहीं क् त् जैसे अघोष वर्णों के स्थान पर ग् द् आदि सघोष वर्णों का आदेश दिखाई देता है। “(source: Pali language wilipaedia)

    2. Sindhu Ghati bata sabai Madhesi Chireko Kunai pramana xaina, Ani sap madhesi thyo Kun race thyo? , kun jaat?, kun dharma ko thyo? kei ullekha xaina?… Ani MAdhesi Kun race ka hun K tiniharu ma racial purity xa ki xaina? yesko ullekha garnu vako xiana.. Genetic study le k k dekhauxa? K sap indo-iranian nai hun…. Those who cross from sindhi do they got assmilated into ARYABRATH or displaced THEM?? Who are pure ARYABRAT than?? Genetic study of THARU “High-resolution analyses of mitochondrial-DNA (including 34 complete sequences) and Y-chromosome (67 SNPs and 12 STRs) variations carried out in 173 Tharus (two groups from Central and one from Eastern Terai), and 104 Indians (Hindus from Terai and New Delhi and tribals from Andhra Pradesh) allowed the identification of three principal components: East Asian, West Eurasian and Indian, the last including both local and inter-regional sub-components, at least for the Y chromosome.
    Conclusion

    Although remarkable quantitative and qualitative differences appear among the various population groups and also between sexes within the same group, many mitochondrial-DNA and Y-chromosome lineages are shared or derived from ancient Indian haplogroups, thus revealing a deep shared ancestry between Tharus and Indians. Interestingly, the local Y-chromosome Indian component observed in the Andhra-Pradesh tribals is present in all Tharu groups, whereas the inter-regional component strongly prevails in the two Hindu samples and other Nepalese populations. ” So can’t be tharu be migrants of SINDHI???

    3. Magadh , Mitilha , vaishali, sapai ma THARU matrai theya ARYABHRAT vannale kun jati, dharma ra AADvasi vannale ke THARU matrai ho??? Maithili language r Newari LANGUAGE ek matra NEPAL ko surxit LIPI ra VASA xa.. Mithilaskar lipi and Ranjan lipi. ith the fall of Pala rule, disappearance of Buddhism, establishment of karnāta kings and patronage of Maithili under Harasimhadeva (1226–1324) of karnāta dynasty, Jyotirisvara Thakur (1280–1340) wrote a unique work Varnaratnākara in pure Maithili prose, the earliest specimen of prose available in any Modern Indo-Aryan language.

    In 1324, Ghyasuddin Tughluq, the emperor of Delhi invaded Mithila, defeated Harasimhadeva, entrusted Mithila to his family Priest Kameshvar Jha, a Maithil Brahmin of the Oinvar family but disturbed era did not produce any literature in Maithili until Vidyapati Thakur (1360 to 1450), who was an epoch making poet under the patronage of king Shiva Simha and his queen Lakhima Devi. He produced over a thousand immortal songs in Maithili on the theme of erotic sports of Radha and Krishna and the domestic life of Shiva and Parvatias well as on the subject of suffering of migrant labourers of Morang and their families; besides he wrote a number of treaties in Sanskrit on various subjects. His love-songs spread far and wide in no time and enchanted saints, poets and youth in general. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu saw divine light of love behind these songs, and soon these songs became themes of Vaisnava sect of Bengal. Rabindranath Tagore, out of curiosity, imitated these songs under the pseudonym Bhanusimha. Vidyapati influenced the religious literature of Asama, Banga and Utkala. During he Malla dynasty’s the Maithili, which spread far and wide throughout Nepal from the 16th to the 17th century.[citation needed] During this period, at least 70 Maithili dramas were produced. In the drama Harishchandranrityam by Siddhinarayanadeva (1620–57), some characters speak pure colloquial Maithili, while others speak Bengali, Sanskrit or Prakrit.
    Maithili languague was not only confined to TERAI but also to kathmandu valley NEPAL and most of the Maithil people had settle kathamndu during late 12th century. The archeological study carried by Nayadev Acharya and BHASKAR KOIRALA mention this (Mithila influence on kathmandy by Bhaskar koirala) that influence of mithila over kathmandu had shared most of the culture and stuff of mithila(SOURCE: one can find on internet research on BHASKAR koirala)

    Maurya, BUDDHA, Maghadha, SEN THARU ho vanne aja samma jatai Kunai evidence chaian logic chaina ra KUNAI angle bata pani Mildaaina… RANA THARU afulai RAJPUT vanxan jo ki THAR desert baat migrate vayeka rajput hun. Tharu jun jun Thau ma Basyo usko Matribhasa tehi vayo.. Yes bati pusti hunxa ki THARU ko matri BHasa tehi ho jaha jaha usko Baas xa,…

    4. Tharu ma MALARIA paidaina vanne kura ekdam galat ho… Tharu ma MALARIA painxa… Bryan hudson Theory is already proved wrong.. Since people living in AFRICA which is one of the oldest inhabitants more than thousand of year and even life started there which is world most viral malaria had been the world most highest cases.. And ORISSA, BIHAR, BeNGAL there is more viral malaria then TARAI which have resided since ancient period had also been affescted by MALARIA… The basis of Less malaria in THARU is due to b-thalessmia in high incidence in THARU and MUSLIM which is due to marriage between close blood lineage. proposed by the researcher not due to gaining immunity due to Long term survival in malarial forest.. The two disease 1. Sickle cell ANAEMIA 2. Thallesmia is inherited disease in which there is RBC disorder thats why malarial parasite can’t survive in red blood cells since it is home for parasite… Thalessmia is high incidence in marriage between close blood relation which is higher in tharu and muslim..

    5. Imposing caste on GOD is narrow minded thought. Morever Claiming them pali languague and scripture as THARU language.. So if PALI language is THARU then which languague is MAGAHI language derived from… MAGAHI/MAGADHI language is spoken in southern Bihar and jharkhand which was ancient part if MAGHDA empire which last king was ASHOKA… Why can’t be the pali language may be the language or script of AWADH, BOJPHUR and MITIHLA?…. How can we co-relate PALI language and pali script as with THARU language huh?? SO again the claiming comes baseless…
    6.. DURING the time of MAURYANS whole INDIA upto AFGANISTHAN and BURMA was under MAURYANS EMPIRE… Writer had given civilization as ethnic identity and he hadn’t describe the word ARYABRAT ethics… CIVILIZATION is not an ethnicity.. Civilization is flourished and those people who assimilated in it becomes part of civilization… SO during Muryas whole indian sub-continent was in part of it Just like Persian civilisation flourished in MIDDLE-EAST… and till now the middle east countries are following persian tradition.. Writer even had claimed CHADRAGUPTA maurya and THARU as SHAKYA banshi which hova got no single LOGIC and EVIDENCE one of the THARU proposed THAT “Chandragupta maurya was born in Champaran and CHAmparan districts has lots of THARU” so on this behalf they are claiming mostly to politicise on TODAY’s Country aspects… What if other ethnic group claim.. GUPTA empire also the part of NEPAL civilisation… They are claiming since “gupta” means to govern or the protector what does it had to do THARU.. How can they claim be Samudragupt Maurya to be the tharu… Those people who Are GUPTA in MADHESI can’t be the ancestors of them???? Whose ancestors were Mauryans i) THARU and 2) GUPTA
    Till now no writers have shown and describe the Mauryans as THARU and no any evidence and no any GRANTHA about tharu had been found and this type of claiming is very recent in origin..The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields.. Are they all THARU? Are Arya BHATT the great mathematician THARU ???
    Look at the coin of gupta the photo and inscription shows are they THARU?

    Does picture depict them as tharu CLAN?
    The art of this type is done by Prajapati’s and these are the cast who makes such artitecture and coin…

    The students of Buddha was Brahamin and who spread the rules of Lord Buddha are also Brahamin.. Are those Brahamn THARU?? what’s is the proof???

    I don’t know abot MANUSMIRITI and Those anyone can find in the internet…. MANUSIMRITI was establish in SHUNGA dynasty….

    Regarding PALI language..King Ashoka erected a number of pillars with his edicts in at least three regional Prakrit languages in Brahmi script,[20] all of which are quite similar to Pali. Historically, the first written record of the Pali canon is believed to have been composed in Sri Lanka, based on a prior oral tradition. Pali and Sanskrit are very closely related and the common characteristics of Pali and Sanskrit were always easily recognized by those in India.
    Indian writers write “पालि त्रिपिटक का कुछ भाग अवश्य ही अशोक के काल में साहित्यिक रूप धारण कर चुका था क्योंकि उसके लाहुलोवाद, मोनेय्यसुत्त आदि सात प्रकरणों का उल्लेख उनकी भाब्रू की प्रशस्ति में हुआ है। किंतु उपलब्ध साहित्य की भाषा में अशोक के पूर्वी शिलालेख की भाषा संबंधी विशेषताओं का प्राय: सर्वथा अभाव है। व्यापक रूप से पालि भाषा का स्वरूप गिरनार प्रशस्ति की भाषा से सर्वाधिक मेल खाता है, और इसी कारण पालि मूलत: पूर्वदेशीय नहीं, किंतु मध्यदेशीय है। जिस विशेषता के कारण पालि मध्ययुगीन भारतीय आर्यभाषा के प्रथम स्तर की गिनी जाती है, द्वितीय की नहीं, वह है उसमें मध्यवर्ती अघोष व्यंजनों के लोप तथा महाप्राण वर्णों के स्थान पर ह् के आदेश का अभाव। ये प्रवृत्तियाँ द्वितीय स्तर की भाषाओं के सामान्य लक्षण हैं। हाँ, कहीं कहीं क् त् जैसे अघोष वर्णों के स्थान पर ग् द् आदि सघोष वर्णों का आदेश दिखाई देता है। “(source: Pali language wilipaedia)

    BUDDHA was born Before MANU’s principle and law prevailed in society… Before that Puranas exist and had its pricipality.DOES puarnas had written any thing Bad as MANUSMRITI… ? Does purana writes about Untouchability and ethnic racism? REMEMBER that manusmriti and puranas are different Things.. THE Puranas developed VARNAS according to the work but doesn’t describe the ethincitiy with whereas Manusmiriti had given the ETHNICITY on Varnas…

    I don’t understand the another pragaraph, MOREVER writer had copy and pasted from the INDIAN writer books and shown that he knows the “चार आर्य सत्यलाई जान्नेलाई ‘बुद्ध’ भनिन्छ भने त्यसको विपरीत चार आर्य सत्यलाई नजान्नेलाई ‘बुद्धु’ भनिन्छ। as if he had Known everything writers attitude had shown itself and I am astonish that the THARU are saying that,
    They are buddha followers holy shit… I have seen them believing in witch-craft and killing them.. So what Knowledge they have and by writers view he is the most saparistis… And I every body can see that they are doing ETHNIC RECONSTRUCTION and trying to prove BUDDHA was tharu and hadn’t been able to SPOKE aganist the PAHADE people who HAD made them landless and become KAMAIYA and KAMALARI… So who is imposing the ethincity. And I know that in BLOGSPOT they have writng aganist only about madhesis and no body dare to speak pahade.. They are the one who separated and had lot of feeling on EHTNICITY…

    AS we know in NEPAL how much the TERAI people had been discriminated.. And how they are harrsaing tarai… The writer didn’t have written how TERAI people have been discriminated in every field NEPAL.. MADHESI have very advance in DOCTORS, ENGINEERS and TECHINCAL field and very artistic … The population lia JHA, YADAV, KYASHTAH, SINGH, had very high litreacy rate after Brahmans but they are discriminated in LOK SEWA…. Some of the elites such as UPENDRA MAHATO(NEPAL’s businessmen), ADITYA JHA, ASARFI SHAH(senior nephrologist and 1st person to bring KIDNEY TRANSPLANT in NEPAL)… UDIT NARAYAN JHA, DR. c.k.RAUT(phd from cambirdge unoversity from engineering)
    TIME is the real thing to show the real person and very much THANKS to writer to show the real FACE in hidden.. I beleive the word “innocent” and “ignorant” is different from each other.. THARU are the ignorant one not innocent and because of this ingnorancy they had become KAMIYA and KAMALARI… They don’t know ever had done struuggle for anything besides pulling legs of other… They don’t know GHULAM ang GULAMI… In support of CONGRESS and UML they are just opposing us but they doesn’t know that they are attacking on their own leg… And we have seen the fraud THARUS such as Laxaman THARU and BIJAY GACCAHADAR everyone knows about them…

    AT LAST we don’t need to give certificate that to show Maithilvasi, Vojpura and awadhi… And you and your people want to seperate from these and want some THARUWAN which is totally meaningless…
    And my friend, you have gone so far in which years and many years back why don’t you go back to the ORIGIN OF LIFE and make sure that THARU was the first people to originate in the world.. AND this type of writing is of no political use and this type of atricle can be mimiced and nicely written by us aganist you..
    Whose IDENTITY is FALSE ..NO proper logic, no proper evidence and support and forcefully separating makes that THARU had FALSE identity… Ethnic claiming on LORD BUDDHA and ETHNIC RECONSTRUCTUON And pulling others legs and arrongant writing makes tharu no more trust worthy…. AND BELIEVE me THE KATHAMANDU STREET DOGS are much more better than THARU..
    MADHESI PEOPLE ARE FIGHTING FOR THE RIGHTS FOR TERAI PEOPLE SINCE 1951 and THARU in 2009 THEY STARTED FIGHTING ONLY AFTER MIMICING MADHESI SO WHO IS THE CONCIOUS AND POLITICAL ELITES. Upto 1958 TERAI PEOPLE REQUIRE VISA TO GO KATHAMNDU VALLEY..
    But the funny thing is what u don’t have acheive anything till now and after 2014 election again you are dumped in MADHESI creitera by Pahade goverment and THARU ministers are sitting and seeing… AND you should know the attitude TOWARDS to you by PAHADES.. THARU are nothing but only matter of POLITICAL issues and VOTE BANKS ….
    THANK YOU,
    Dr. Amrit Prajapati

  11. Rajyasatta nai pahichanko mamla ma bibhedkari chha. Tharu pachichan mathi basam bara dhaba bolnu bahneko structural violence ho.

  12. साथीहरु कृपया चिसो दिमागले सोच्न बिनम्र आग्रह गर्दछु र माननीय महेश चोधरी संग सोध्न आग्रह पनि गर्छु :
    कृपया माथीको लेखलाई पनि सेभ गरेर राख्नुहोला। डा. सी. के. राउत सँग लेखकले कहिले भेटे को छैन न त कुने माध्यम बाट कुरा नै गरे को छ/ कुरै नहुँदा पनि त्यति झूठो लेख्न सक्नेले भोलि लेखलाई सच्चाएर मैले त्यस्तो लेखेकै छैन भन्न के बेर?
    सोझा साझा लाई उल्लु बनाउन खोजे को त होइन कते? राम्ररी जानकारी लिएर छलफल गर्नु होला,धन्यवाद

  13. http://ckraut.com/2014/04/24/%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%82%E0%A4%AC%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%BE-%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE

    डा. सी. के. राउत को जीवनी पढ्न पनि आग्रह गर्छु, कसें को बारे मा कमेन्ट गर्दा उहाँ बारे मा जानकारी राखेर गर्नु भयो भने अझे राम्रो हुनेछ कि? के सच्चिके डा. सी. के. राउत ले गलत लेख्न खोजे को छ या दलाली गर्न खोजे को छ? हजुरहरु स्वन्त्र हुनुहुन्छ आफ्नो तथ्यगत धारणा राख्न/धन्यवाद

  14. Just one request for PHD doctors. You introduce yourself as Madhesi, Tharus do not have problem. If Tharus want to introduce what they are, why do you’ve problem. Their appearances, culture, languages so many things are different than other group of people in terai. I don’t need to explain here like you mad docs. Are you all PHDs blind or have sense organs? If You PHDs have own creativity, then find something new, some truth not revealed by others without biasness. Everything is changeable in the world. Time changes everything. So many established theories and researches are proved wrong and so many untold truths are revealed as the time passes on. Most of the proofs mentioned above are full of biasness just to prove what they want to prove with bad intention. Neither Madhesis nor Tharus will achieve anything from such word war. As far as i know education makes people kind, soft and well mannered. I don’t see such thing in so called above docs. Don’t you PHDs need to rethink yourself?

  15. In a single long comment, two commentator’s name are mentioned above Dr. Amrit Giri and Dr.Amrit Prajapati. All commentators have attached same link. Seems Madhesi by name. Most probably, Dr. Raut is himself writing commnet by different name.

  16. थारु हरु लाई मधेशी मा नराखेकै राम्रो . मधेशी हरु यति असब्द बोल्दैनन . चौधरी हरु ले यहि कुरा थारु सभासद हरु लाई भन्नुस जो मधेशी को सिट कब्जा गरेर बसेका छन् . महेश चौधरी को दल एमाले ले सबै थारु हरु लाई मधेशी अनतर्गत राखेको छ र जनजाती मा अरु हरु लाई . फर्स्ट मा एमाले सुधार्न न सक्ने मान्छे ले इन्टरनेट मा बोलेको सुहयना. म मधेशी हो र थारु हरु लाई कहिले मधेशी भन्दिन किन भने धनगढी, बर्दिया मा मैले देखेको बरु यिनी हरु तल कट्टु मात्रै लागौछान तर टाउको मा ढाका टोइ छुटऔदैनन , उनि हरुलाई राजा साहेब भनेर चाकरी गर्छन मधेशी लाई धोति भन्छन . यस्ता हरु अरु जे हुन् तर मधेशी होइनन .

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